Goreans don’t really have a concept of nation or country as those on Earth do. Whereas men on Earth think of Cities as belonging to country, the crucial political entity on Gor is the City or Village itself. To the Gorean way of thinking all things converge on the City, or the center of the Hub. On Earth it is more outward look towards the imaginary boundaries of their countries.
"There is no Gorean expression for `country' in the precise sense of a nation. Men of Earth think of cities as being within countries. Men of Gor tend to think of cities and the lands controlled by them. The crucial political entity for Goreans tends to be the city or village, the place where people and power are. There can be, of course, leagues among cities and tangential territories. Men of Earth tend to think of territory in a manner that might be considered circumferential, whereas Goreans tend to think of it as a more radial sort of thing. Consider a circle with a point at its center. The man of Earth might conceive of the territory as bounded by the circumference; the man of Gor would be more likely to think of the territory as a function of the sweep of the radius which emanates from the central point. Geometrically, of course, these two conceptions are equivalent. Psychologically, however, they are not. The man of Earth looks to the periphery; the man of Gor looks to the center. The man of Earth thinks of territory as static, regardless of the waxing and wanings of the power that maintains it; the Gorean tends to think of territory as more dynamic, a realistic consequence of the geopolitical realities of power centers. Perhaps it would be better to say that the Gorean tends to think more in teens of sphere of influence than he does in terms of imaginary lines on maps which may not reflect current historical realities." Fighting Slave of Gor
Generally speaking, Gorean civil law is made by whatever ruling body holds power at one given time and applied mainly in primitive fashion, by various magistrates. Laws are generally particular to the City/area in which the Gorean resides. Laws in Port Kar, for instance can be very different from laws in Ko-ro-ba. A concept on Gor known as the “
'The city-state,' said my father, speaking to me late one afternoon, 'is the basic political division on Gor - hostile cities controlling what territory they can in their environs, surrounded by a no-man's land of open ground on every side.' 'How is leadership decided in these cities?' I asked. 'Rulers,' he said, 'are chosen from any High Caste.' " Tarnman of Gor
There does not seem very much room for doubt in this system as essentially, those trials the reader finds in the books are mostly a matter of sentencing since the accused has most often been caught in the act. There will, however, be mention of the law which was broken as well as what is known for that city/area to be the common penalty for this type of offense.
An advantage of this system is that wars tend to be very local. Only a few cities and their associated villages tend to be involved rather than the concept of World Wars that plagued Earth in the 20th century. Gorean warfare also tends to be conducted by trained men of their Castes (Warriors) rather than the arming of millions of “citizens” with slaughter of hundreds or thousands of people is not a concept Goreans are familiar with.
"One result of this attitude is that most wars, most armed altercations, tend to be very local. They tend to involve, usually, only a few cities and their associated villages and territories, rather than gigantic political entities such as nations. One result of this is that the number of people affected by warfare on Gor usually tends, statistically, to be quite limited. Also, it might be noted that most Gorean warfare is carried out largely by relatively small groups of professional soldiers, seldom more than a few thousand in the field at a given time, trained men, who have their own caste. Total warfare, with its arming of millions of men, and its broadcast slaughter of hundreds of populations, is Gorean neither in concept nor in practice. Goreans, often castigated for their cruelty, would find such monstrosities unthinkable." Fighting Slave of Gor
Of course, within the Gorean reality, the slave is not a citizen and hence not entitled to trial or defense per se. A great number of laws do pertain to what slaves may or may not do and failure to abide by the rules can be cause for punishment at the discretion of the free persons involved; these things do not require legal proceedings. It is also of note that a slave who participates in criminal activity by obeying the command of their master or another free person is almost invariably found to have done no wrong. Indeed, since the slave is to obey without question, she would be considered to have done the right thing no matter what the command is.
If the events found along Tarl Cabot's journey are a reflection of what is most common, one would have to conclude that criminals end up in collars and chains, be it the collar of a work chain or a pleasure garden. Men will more often be executed by whatever means is popular in the area or sent to work chains temporarily for more minor crimes, whereas women are more likely to be enslaved, especially if they are beautiful.
So how were Cities run, who ran them and therefore who would carry out the laws of those cities? John Norman seems to take many of his titles from Ancient Cultures, particularly Roman and Greek, of Earth. City rules, mostly magistrates of one type or another included: (Also see Rulers)
An Aedile is usually part of a board of Magistrates that most often in charge of public buildings, streets, games and markets
"Two days ago, aediles had come to the camp to inspect the chains. They found none which contained illicit prisoners. No mention was made of the fact that a third of the chains was absent. The next day the auspices had been taken, and, seemingly, all had gone well. The chains in camp were already back at work. Preceding the time of taking the auspices, of course, and until they have been taken, things are very quiet." Dancer of Gor
Archon of Records
A Magistrate and an authoritative figure, the Archon of Records would be the keeper of records for the City
One of the two magistrates, he who was senior, Tolnar, of the second Octavii, an important gens but one independent of the well-known Octavii, sometimes spoken of simply as the Octavii, or sometimes as the first Octavii, deputy commissioner in the records office, much of which had been destroyed in a recent fire, was at the other portal. His colleague, Venlisius, a bright young man who was now, by adoption, a scion of the Toratti, was with him. Venlisius was in the same office. He was records officer, or archon of records, for the Metellan district, in which we were located. Both magistrates wore their robes, and fillets, of office." Magicians of Gor
Most Gorean Cities have a City Council elected by members of the High Castes made up from members of the High Castes only. While City Council’s may be only comprised of High Castes, the Caste of Merchants supported by its often vast wealth have their influence as well.
The High Castes in a given city elect an administrator and council for stated terms … Tarnsman of Gor
"Whereas it is only the men of high caste who elect members to the Council of the City, the gold of merchants and the will of the general populace is seldom disregarded in their choices." Assassin of Gor
"In many cities only members of the high castes may belong to the city's high council. Most Gorean cites are governed by an executive, the Administrator, in conjunction with the high council." Slave Girl of Gor
"The Chamber of the Council is the room in which the elected representatives of the High Castes of Ko-ro-ba hold their meetings. Each city has such a chamber. It was in the widest of cylinders, and the ceiling was at least six times the height of the normal living level. The ceiling was lit as if by stars, and the walls were of five colors, applied laterally, beginning from the bottom - white, blue, yellow, green, and red, caste colors. Benches of stone, on which the members of the Council sat, rose in five monumental tiers about the walls, one tier for each of the High Castes. These tiers shared the color of that portion of the wall behind them, the caste colors. The tier nearest the floor, which denoted some preferential status, the white tier, was occupied by Initiates, Interpreters of the Will of Priest-Kings. In order, representatives of the Scribes, Builders, Physicians, and Warriors occupied the ascending tiers, blue, yellow, green, and red." Tarnman of Gor
Villages are usually associated with a nearby City. Most often villages are populated by peasants and have their own Councils. Cities protect their villages as products and foods are produced their on which the Cities depend.
"There were the northern islands, of course, and they were numerous, but small, extending in an archipelago like a scimitar northeastward from
From the elected City Council, an executive, the Administrator rules the City in conjunction with the High Council. While Council is made up of the High Castes, it is interesting to note that while the Warrior Caste may be considered to be the lowest of the High Castes, most often the Administrators and Ubars for a City are selected for this task.
"In the center of the amphitheater was a throne of office, and on this throne, in his robe of state - a plain brown garment, the humblest cloth in the hall - sat my father, Administrator of Ko-ro-ba, once Ubar, War Chieftain of the city. At his feet lay a helmet, shield, spear, and sword." " Tarnsman of Gor
"In many cities only members of the high castes may belong to the city's high council. Most Gorean cites are governed by an executive, the Administrator, in conjunction with the high council." Slave Girl of Gor
"The high castes are normally accounted five in number--the Warriors, the Builders, the Physicians, the Scribes, and the Initiates. The Initiates are sometimes thought of as the highest of the five high castes, and the Warriors as the least of the five high castes. In actual fact, the Warriors commonly produce the administrators and ubars for a city. It is not easy in a world such as this to deprive those who are skilled with weapons their share of authority. If it is not given to them, they will take it." Witness of Gor
Judges, as on Earth would be the ones to prescribe punishment. These are magistrates as well. On Gor, most often when a person is in a “trial” they have been caught “in the act” so the job of the judge is made easier than perhaps those of Earth.
"I saw first the girl, stumbling. She was already stripped. Her hands were tied behind her back. Something, pushing her from behind, had been fastened on her neck. Behind her came a flat-topped wagon, of some four feet in height. It was moved by eight tunicked, collared slave girls, two to each wheel, pushing at the wheels. It was guided by a man walking behind it, by means of a lever extending back, under the wagon, from the front axle. Flanking the wagon, on both sides, were the musicians, with their drums and flutes. Behind the wagon, in the white robes trimmed with gold and purple of merchant magistrates, came five men. I recognized them as judges." Hunters of Gor
Magistrates are the rulers in a typical City on Gor occupy most of the administrative positions. They are the Aediles, Archons, Judges, even Executioners.
"Both magistrates wore their robes, and fillets, of office. They also carried their wands of office, which, I suspect, from the look of them, and despite the weapons laws of
"Lying on the ground, bound hand and foot, still clad in the white robe, was Talena. The point of the sharpened impaling post lay near her. As the tarn had landed, her executioners, two burly, hooded magistrates, had scrambled to their feet and fled to safety. The Initiates themselves do not execute their victims, as the shedding of blood is forbidden by those beliefs they regard as sacred." Tarnsman of Gor
"One of the two magistrates, he who was senior, Tolnar, of the second Octavii, an important gens but one independent of the well-known Octavii, sometimes spoken of simply as the Octavii, or sometimes as the first Octavii, deputy commissioner in the records office, much of which had been destroyed in a recent fire, was at the other portal. His colleague, Venlisius, a bright young man who was now, by adoption, a scion of the Toratti, was with him. Venlisius was in the same office. He was records officer, or archon of records, for the Metellan district, in which we were located. Both magistrates wore their robes, and fillets, of office." Magicians of Gor
Although most ports and islands on Gor and ruled in a similar fashion to Cities, the Exchange islands are administered by the Caste of Merchants. Port Kar, is different again and is run by a board of four magistrates, known as the Port Consortium and they report directly to the Council of Captains.
"Also known as exchange islands, they are administered as Free Ports by the Merchants. Included are Teletus, Tabor, and Scagnar. Others were Farnacium, Hulneth and Asperiche. In the south are Anango and Landa, and in the far north, Hunger and Skjern, west of Torvaldsland. These islands, and free ports on the coast such as Lydius and Helmutsport, Schendi and Bazi make possible the commerce between
"Most ports and islands on Thassa, of course, are not managed by the Merchants, but, commonly, by magistrates appointed by the city councils. In Port Kar, my city, the utilization of the facilities of the port is regulated by a board of four magistrates, the Port Consortium, which reports directly to the Council of Captains, which, since the downfall of the warring Ubars, is sovereign in the city." Hunters of Gor
A Military Govenor put into place when one City has conquered another and in effect rules on behalf of the Ruler of the Conquering City. Temos had a Polemarkos in Prize of Gor when it was ruled by Cos. Myron ruled on behalf of Lurius of Jad, Ubar of Cos.
There is some pretense that the city is free, but in fact it is not. The true ruler is, I suppose, the military governor, Myron, polemarkos of Temos, commander of the occupational forces, or perhaps actually distant Lurius of Jad, Ubar of
The Praetor is a magistrate who is in charge of Prefects. He is indentified with nine strips on His sleeve, Prefects have five and lesser officials have three. Praetors, traditionally will be second on the City Council Hierarchy to the Administrator.
"In a moment or two, I stopped a few yards from a registration desk. There one of Ina's pursuers, I recognized him from earlier, was making inquiries of one of the five camp prefects, fellows under the camp praetor. The perfects are identified by five slash marks, alternately blue and yellow, the slavers' colors, on their left sleeve, the praetor himself by nine such stripes, and lesser officials by three. Turning about, apparently alerted by the prefect's notice, the fellow with one hand suddenly turned the prefect's desk to its side so that it stood wall-like between us, and hurried behind it." Vagabonds of Gor
Prefects, as most City officials, are Magistrates. The would be in charge of very specific areas of the City, for example Public Games and would report to Praetors. Prefects tend to have five slashes or stripes on Their robes where Praetors will have nine. Lessor officials often have only three.
"I looked about, through the curtain, at the guests of the Lady Florence, other than the Lady Melpomene. The fellow from Venna, clad In white and gold, was Philebus, a bounty creditor. He was known to the merchants of several cities. Such men buy bills at discount and then set themselves to collect, as they can, their face value. They are tenacious in their trade. I did not know the business of the two men from Ar. They were Tenalion, and his man, Ronald. The fourth man was
Quaestors are high ranking magistrates on Gor. Most often they are in charge of financial matters, banking for instance or other areas of Administration. The would rank higher than the Praetors.
"Some may have been as innocent as those I had lured; others might have been murderers and brigands, suitably enchained for the expiation of sentences, their custody having been legally transferred to Ionicus, my master, at the payment of a prisoner's fee, by the writ of a praetor or, in more desperate cases, by the order of a quaestor." Dancer of Gor
A Tatrix is a female ruler and as such is a rarity on Gor. Tharna being the City most famous for having a Tatrix.
“What is a Tatrix?” I asked. “A female ruler,” she said." Kajira of Gor
"In a Gorean city it was not difficult for a woman to travel in- cognito. By the robes of concealment this is made easy. I wore the robes of a woman of high, caste, today the yellow of the Builders. Drusus Rencius wore a nondescript tunic and a swirling maroon cape. The only weaponry he carried, that I could detect, was his sword. He might have been any mercenary or armed servant, in attendance on a lady. I was pleased to travel incognito in the city, in this fashion. Other- wise, had I gone abroad in the robes of the Tatrix, we would have been encumbered by guards and crowds; we would have had to travel in a palanquin; we would have been forced to tolerate the annunciatory drums and trumpets, and put up with all the noisy, ostentatious, dreary panoply of office. To be sure I sometimes found such accouterments stimulating and gratifying but I certainly did not want them every time I wished to put my foot outside the palace gate." Kajira of Gor
"The balance of mutual regard is always delicate and, statistically, it is improbable that it can long be maintained throughout an entire population. Accordingly, gradually exploiting, perhaps unconsciously, the opportunities afforded by the training of children and the affections of their men, the women of Tharna improved their position considerably over the generations, also adding to their social power the economic largesse of various funds and inheritances. Eventually, largely via the conditioning of the young and the control of education, those superiorities which the female naturally possesses came to be enlarged on at the expense of those possessed by the male. And just as in our own world it is possible to condition entire populations to believe what is, from the standpoint of another population, incomprehensible and absurd, so in Tharna both the men and the women came eventually to believe the myths or the distortions advantageous to female dominance. Thus it was, gradually and unnoticed, that the gynocracy of Tharna came to be established, and honored with the full weight of tradition and custom, those invisible bonds heavier than chains because they are not understood to exist." Outlaw of Gor
"In a city such as Tharna the men, taught to regard themselves as beasts, as inferior beings, seldom develop the full respect for themselves essential to true manhood. But even more strangely, the women of Tharna do not seem content under the gynocracy. Although they despise men and congratulate themselves on their more lofty status it seems to me that they, too, fail to respect themselves. Hating their men, they hate themselves." Outlaw of Gor
In times of crisis, the City Council elects as War Chief, known as an Ubar. He rules without check and by His decree alone until, in His judgment, the crisis has passed.
"The High Castes in a given city elect an administrator and council for stated terms. In times of crisis, a war chief, or Ubar, is named, who rules without check and by decree until, in his judgment, the crisis is passed. "Normally the office is surrendered after the passing of the crisis. It is part of the Warrior’s Code." ...................Those who do not desire to surrender their power, are usually deserted by their men. The offending war chief is simply abandoned." Tarnsman of Gor
"To truly see a Ubar," I said, "to look into his heart can be a fearful thing." "Only one can sit upon the throne," said Msaliti. "That is a saying of the north," I said. "I know," said Msaliti. "But it is a saying that is also known east of Schendi." "Even east of Schendi," I smiled, "the throne is a lonely country." "He who sits upon the throne, it is said," said Msaliti, "is the most alone of men." I nodded. Perhaps it was just as well not to have looked too deeply into the eyes of Bila Huruma. It is not always desirable to look deeply into the eyes of a Ubar." Explorers of Gor
"I then, truly, for the first time looked into the eyes of Bila Huruma. He sat upon the high platform, above the others, solitary and isolated, the necklace of panther teeth about his neck, the lamps below him. I sensed, then, for a moment, what it must be to be a Ubar. It was then, in that instant, that I first truly saw him, as he was, and as he must be. I looked then on loneliness and decision, and power. The Ubar must contain within himself dark strengths. He must be capable of doing, as many men are not, what is necessary. Only one can sit upon the throne, as it is said. And, as it is said, he who sits upon the throne is the most alone of men. It is he who must be a stranger to all men, and to whom all men must be strangers. The throne indeed is a lonely country. Many men desire to live there but few, I think, could bear its burdens. Let us continue to think of our Ubars as men much like ourselves, only perhaps a bit wiser, or stronger, or more fortunate. That way we may continue to be comfortable with them, and, to some extent, feel ourselves their superior. But let us not look into their eyes too closely, for we might see there that which sets them apart from us. It is not always desirable to look deeply into the eyes of a Ubar." Explorers of Gor
Wagon People Administration of Laws
All Men of the Wagon People are expected to be Warriors first, irrespective of their Clans. Therefore, the Wagon People will have an Ubar as their leader.
The wagon of Kutaituchik, called Ubar of the Tuchuks, was drawn up on a large, flat-topped grassy hill, the highest land in the camp. Beside the wagon, on a great pole fixed in the earth, stood the Tuchuk standard of the four bosk horns. The hundred, rather than eight, bosk that drew his wagon had been unyoked; they were huge, red bosk; their horns had been polished and their coats glistened from the comb and oils; their golden nose rings were set with jewels; necklaces of precious stones hung from the polished horns. The wagon itself was the largest in the camp, and the largest wagon I had conceived possible; actually it was a vast platform, set on numerous wheeled frames; though at the edges of the platform, on each side, there were a dozen of the large wheels such as are found on the much smaller wagons; these latter wheels turned as the wagon moved and supported weight, but could not of themselves have supported the entire weight of that fantastic, wheeled palace of hide. The hides that formed the dome were of a thousand colors, and the smoke hole at the top must have stood more than a hundred feet from the flooring of that vast platform. I could well conjecture the riches, the loot and the furnishing that would dazzle the interior of such a magnificent dwelling. But I did not enter the wagon, for Kutaituchik held his court outside the wagon, in the open air, on the flat-topped grassy hill. A large dais had been built, vast and spreading, but standing no more than a foot from the earth. This dais was covered with dozens of thick rugs, sometimes four and five deep. Nomads of Gor
The first group of wagons moving, known as the first wagon will belong to the Ubar and His household. Commanders would be next in line in the hierarchy of the Wagon People. The often have their wagons painted red and filled with riches from their conquests.
"At that time, of course," said Harold, "our wagons were not painted red, nor filled with booty and rich things, for we were not then commanders."
"But to reward us for what?" I asked.
"For courage," said he. Nomads of Gor
"… I have had it well stocked — with Paga and Ka-la-na wines from Ar and such." In Turia, even though we had much of the riches of the city at our disposal, there had not been much Paga or Ka-la-na wine. As I may have mentioned the Turians, on the whole, favor thick, sweet wines. I had taken, as a share of battle loot, a hundred and ten bottles of Paga and forty bottles of Ka-la-na wine from Tyros, Cos and Ar, but these I had distributed to my crossbowmen, with the exception of one bottle of Paga which Harold and I had split some two nights ago. I decided I might spend the night in my wagon. Nomads of Gor
It was a large wagon, drawn by eight black bosk. There were two Tuchuk guards outside. Beside it, fixed in the earth, on a pole, there was a standard of four bosk horns. The pole had been painted red, which is the color of commanders. The two Tuchuk guards saluted us, striking their lances three times on their shields. Nomads of Gor
During the days of the Omen Taking, the haruspexes of the four Clans of the Wagon People (Kassars, Kataii, Paravaci and Tuchuks) to determine if conditions are right for the election of a Ubar Sar … who would rule over all the Wagon Peoples.
"They do not have castes, as Goreans tend to think of them. For example, every male of the Wagon Peoples is expected to be a warrior, to be able to ride, to be able to hunt, to care for the bosk, and so on. When I speak of Year Keepers and Singers it must be understood that these are not, for the Wagon Peoples, castes, but more like roles, subsidiary to their main functions, which are those of the war, herding and the hunt. They do have, however, certain clans, not castes, which specialize in certain matters, for example, the clan of healers, leather workers, salt hunters, and so on. I have already mentioned the clan of torturers. The members of these clans, however, like the Year Keepers and Singers, are all expected, first and foremost, to be, as it is said, of the wagons namely to follow, tend and protect the bosk, to be superb in the saddle, and to be skilled with the weapons of both the hunt and war." Nomads of Gor
"I had learned to my surprise that the Ubars of the Kassars, Kataii and Paravaci were, respectively, Conrad, Hakimba and Tolnus, the very three I had first encountered with Kamchak on the plains of Turia when first I came to the Wagon Peoples. What I had taken to be merely a group of four outriders had actually been a gathering of Ubars of the Wagon Peoples. I should have known that no four warriors of the four peoples would have ridden together. Further, the Kassars, the Kataii and the Paravaci did not reveal their true Ubars with any greater willingness than the Tuchuks had. Bach people, as the Tuchuks, had its false Ubar, its decoy to protect the true Ubar from danger or assassination. But, Kamchak had assured me, Conrad, Hakimba and Tolnus were indeed the true Ubars of their peoples." Nomads of Gor
"Indeed it was true, for the next level beneath a Ubar among the Wagon Peoples is that of the Commander of a Thousand." Nomads of Gor
"I resolved that the best time to steal the egg would be during the days of the Omen Taking. At that time, the men would be afield, on the rolling hills surrounding the Omen Valley, in which on the hundreds of smoking alters, the haruspexes of the four peoples would be practicing their obscure craft, taking the omens, trying to determine whether or not they were favorable for the election of a Ubar San, a One Ubar, who would be Ubar of all the Wagons. (...) There had been no Ubar San for a hundred years or more—the Wagon Peoples, fierce and independent, did not wish a Ubar San." Nomads of Gor
The wife of a Ubar
"I would be the Ubara of all Gor,” she laughed, “with Priest-Kings at my beck and call, at my command all their riches and their untold powers!”… Priest-Kings of Gor
"The principle here, I gather," said Marcus, "is that the Ubara is above the law." "The law in question is a serious one," said Tolnar. "It was promulgated by Marlenus, Ubar of Ubars." "Surely," said Venlisius to the netted woman, "you do not put yourself on a level with the great Marlenus." "It does not matter who is greater," she said, "I am Ubara!"
"The Ubara is above the law?" asked Marcus, who had an interest in such things. "In a sense yes," said Tolnar, "the sense in which she can change the law by decree." "But she is subject to the law unless she chooses to change it?" asked Marcus. "Precicely," said Tolnar. "And that is the point here." "Whatever law it is," cried the netted woman, "I change it! I herewith change it!" "How can you change it?" asked Tolnar. "I am Ubara!" she said." Magicians of Gor
Chiefs of the Red Savages
Among the various tribes of the Red Savages are chiefs. Each tribe would have its own chiefs. There are several different kinds, the primary types are war chief, medicine chief and civil chief. In addition, most tribes had several warrior societies. These societies would function as guards, police, keep the tribes advised to the movements of the kailiauk and organize hunts. It is common for them to give feasts and hold dances.
"Among the red savages there are various sorts of chief. The primary types of chief are the war chief, the medicine chief and the civil chief. One may be, interestingly, only one sort of chief at a time. This, like the rotation of police powers among warrior societies, is a portion of the checks and balances, so to speak, which tend to characterize tribal governance. Other checks and balanced are such things as tradition and custom, the closeness of the governed and the governors, multiple-family inter-relatedness, the election of chiefs, the submission of significant matters to a council, and ultimately, the feasibility of simply leaving the group in greater or lesser numbers." Savages of Gor
"Most tribes had several warrior societies These societies had much influence within the tribes and on an alternating basis to preclude any one society from becoming predominant a good deal of power. Their members were expected to set an example in war and the hunt." Savages of Gor
"Warrior Societies in the tribes have many functions They are a significant component of tribal existence. Such societies on an alternating basis do such things as keep order in the camps and on the treks. They function too as guards and police. It is part of their function too to keep the tribes apprised as to the movements of kailiauk and to organize and police tribal hunts. Such societies too it might be noted are useful in various social ways. They provide institutions through which merit can be recognized and rewarded and tribal traditions freshened maintained and renewed. They preserve medicine bundles keep ceremonies and teach histories. It is common for them to give feasts and hold dances. Their rivalries provide an outlet for intertribal aggression and the attendant competitions supply an encouragement for effort and a stimulus to excellence. Within the society itself of course the members profit from the values of alliance and camaraderie and friendship. Needless to say each society will have too its own medicines and mysteries." Savages of Gor
The Government of the Red Hunters
Red Hunters called themselves the Innuit which means “the People”. They normally live in scattered, isolated communities and war, in its usual sense is unknown to them. They seem to have the least organized government structure.
"With Imnak's help we would cross Ax Glacier and find the Innuit, as they called themselves, a word which, in their own tongue, means “the People.” I recalled that in the message of Zarendargar he had referred to himself as a war general of the “People.” He had meant, of course, I assumed, his own people, or kind. Various groups are inclined to so identify themselves. It is an arrogance which is culturally common. The Innuit do not have “war generals.” War, in its full sense, is unknown to them. They live generally in scattered, isolated communities. It is as though two families lived separated in a vast remote area. There would be little point and little likelihood to their having a war. In the north one needs friends, not enemies. In good years, when the weather is favorable, there tends to be enough sleen and tabuk, with careful hunting, to meet their needs. One community is not likely to be much better or worse of than another. There is little loot to be acquired. What one needs one can generally hunt or make for oneself. There is little point in stealing from someone what one can as simply acquire for oneself. Within given groups, incidentally, theft is rare. The smallness of the groups provides a powerful social control. If one were to steal something where would one hide or sell it? Besides, if one wished something someone else owned and let this be known, the owner would quite possibly give it to you, expecting, of course, to receive as valuable a gift in return. Borrowing, too, is prevalent among the red hunters. The loan of furs, tools and women is common. ...............The Innuit, on the whole, seem to be happy, pleasant fellows.’Perhaps that is why they live where they do. They have been unable, or unwilling, to compete with more aggressive groups. Their gentleness has resulted, it seems, in their being driven to the world’s end. Where no others have desired to live the Innuit, sociable and loving, have found their bleak refuge." Beasts of Gor
Torvaldsland Leaders – Jarls
In Torvaldsland, leaders are known as Jarls. There were also chieftains and captains and all were ruled by the High Jarl.
"We saw, too, many chieftains, and captains, and minor Jarls, in the crowd, each with his retinue. These high men were sumptuously garbed, richly cloaked and helmeted, often with great axes, inlaid with gold." Marauders of Gor
"Svein Blue Tooth was the high jarl of Torvaldsland, in the sense that he was generally regarded as the most powerful. In his hall, it was said he fed a thousand men. Beyond this his heralds could carry the war arrow, it was said, to ten thousand farms. Ten ships he had at his own wharves, and, it was said, he could summon a hundred more "He is your Jarl?" I asked. "He was my Jarl," said Ivar Forkbeard." Marauders of Gor